Auxiliaries and Modals
ऑक्ज़ीलयरिज़ और मोडल्स
Auxiliary Verbs

Often to complete the mood, tense or other information in a sentence a supporting verb is (or verbs are) used along with the main verb of sentence. These supporting or assiting verbs are known as Auxiliary verbs.
किसी वाक्ये के भाव (mood), काल (Tense), व्यक्ति (Person) और संख्या (Number) को सही और पूर्ण रूप से प्रस्तुत करने के लिए कई बार उस में मुख्य verb के साथ एक या एक से अधिक auxiliary (सहायक) verbs का उपयोग करना आवश्यक हो जाता है.

Observe the use of the words had, will, was and had been.
यहां had, will, was और had been पर गौर करें.

had walked
will run
was calling
has been talking

These are assisting or auxiliary verbs. These are used in association with some main verb and used to express them in different tenses.
ये सभी शब्द auxiliary (सहायक) verbs की भूमिका निभा रहे हैं. इनका उपयोग किसी दूसरे main verb के साथ किया गया है. इनकी सहायता से main verb को अलग-अलग tense में पेश किया गया है.

These combine with infinitives to indicate permission, possibility, obligation, deduction etc.
इन्हें इनफिनीटिव के साथ जोड़ कर अनुमति, संभावना, आभार, अनुमान आदि के भाव प्रकट किये जाते हैं.

You may come for the meeting.
I can take this exam.
We must work hard.

There are two types of auxiliary verbs...
  • Primary Verb
    प्राथ्मिक क्रिया
  • Modal Verb
    मोडल क्रिया
Primary Verb - प्राथ्मिक क्रिया
The primary verbs are used alongwith the main verbs to make compound verbs to achieve the forms of different tenses.
प्राथ्मिक क्रियाओं के साथ मिल कर मुख्य क्रियाओं के संयुक्त क्रिया बनते हैं जिनसे अलग-अलग काल के रूप बनते हैं.

There are three primary verbs...
तीन प्राथमिक क्रियाएँ हैं...
  • be
  • do
  • have
These verbs can be used in both capacities - auxiliary verb and main verb
इन क्रियाओं को दोनो क्षमताओं में उपयोग किया जा सकता है - सहायक क्रिया और मुख्य क्रिया
As Primary Verb
He is coming home.
He was coming home.
You have come a long way.
You did come a long way.
The use of these verbs are main verb is demonstrated below...
नीचे इन्ही क्रियाओं का उपयोग मुख्य क्रिया जैसे प्रदर्शित है...
As Main Verb
This is a car.
It was green in color.
I will be in school.

Modal Verb - मोडल क्रिया

Modal verbs are used with the main verb of the sentence to express mood and to some extent tense.
मोडल क्रिया को वाक्य में मुख्य क्रिया के साथ उपयोग किया जाता है ताकि सही भाव का प्रदर्शन किया जा सके.

The verbs that are used as modals include... can, could, dare, may, might, must, need, ought, shall, should, used, will, would.
निम्न क्रियाओं को modals की तरह उपयोग कर सकते हैं - can, could, dare, may, might, must, need, ought, shall, should, used, will, would.

It may rain today.
Can you swim?
It is getting late. I ought to go home.
Be careful, you could hurt yourself.

These modals are also the defective verbs because they cannot be used in all moods and tenses. They do not have separate form in the third person singular and they do not have infinitive and -ing forms.
ये modals विकृत क्रियाएं होते हैं क्योंकी इन का उपयोग हर मूड या काल में नहीं किया जा सकता है. इन का third person singular में अलग रूप नहीं होता और ना ही इनका infinitive और -ing रूप होता है.

how mood changes with modal
can She can swim in the pool.
could She could swim in the pool.
dare She dare swim in the pool.
had to She had to swim in the pool.
may She may swim in the pool.
might She might swim in the pool.
must She must swim in the pool.
need She needs to swim in the pool.
ought She ought to swim in the pool.
shall She shall swim in the pool.
should She should swim in the pool.
used She used to swim in the pool.
will She will swim in the pool.
would She would swim in the pool.

of Verb